Perception is finding out how we take different stimuli and form representations of the environment. It is about how we interpret different situations and visualize them according to our surroundings. Every human being had a different perception. Perception enables us to take words that are full of different stimuli and place them in a context, that provides us with meaning and understanding. Perception provides meaningful awareness and knowledge of the world.
Definition of Perception
“Perception is a process of organizing and interpreting information to give it meaning.”
” Perception is the acquisition and processing of sensory information in order to see, hear, taste, smell or feel objects in the world.”
Different Types of Perception
Perception involves actively recognizing, identifying, and assigning meanings to the stimuli. Following are the types of perception.
- Motion Perception
- Time Perception
- Depth and Distance Perception
- Form Perception
To find motion in an object is called motion perception. When a subject or stimulus changes its position with the passage of time then it is called motion. Movement can be of two types.
- Real Movement
- Apparent Movement
Real movement is when the stimuli actually change their position with the passage of time. Movement of Human beings, animals, and vehicles are easily observed with the passage of time these are real movements.
Apparent movement is when the stimulus does not change its position with the passage of time but seems to move. It is due to some higher level organization procedure for motion perception.
Factors in motion perception
The following factors are involved in motion perception
When an object is moving at a higher speed its movement becomes invisible i.e., it is difficult to perceive the movement of the wings of the fan when working, or bullet movement when fired due to speed. When the stimuli are slow it is also difficult to perceive their movement like the growth of children and plants although we know that they are growing we are not able to detect their speed.
Size is also important in motion perception. Huge stimuli and small stimuli move at the same time their movement of perception can’t be the same. The movement of a very tiny object is detectable if it moves slowly while a huge stimulus like the movement of the earth can not be detectable due to its size.
Distance is also an important factor in motion perception. For Example, Airplanes fly high but it seems that their motion is slow due to the large distance.
We can easily perceive time. We have observed the time of trains, schools, markets, etc. We have watches and alarms so we do not have to go to some specific area to perceive time accurately. We don’t have any particular organ to perceive time, it is in an individual’s internal matter how he perceives time. We can recall different events like visits to a place, examinations, etc.
Factors Affecting Time Perception
- Subjective Factors
- Objective Factors
Subjective factors mean internal factors like mental and physical state. If someone is sick, tired, waiting for someone, or taking an examination time perception will be different according to the situation.
Objective factors mean external factors like environmental events and objects. For Example, Muslims can easily perceive the time with reference to prayers. People pick the cues from the location of the sun, moon, and, stars for time perception.
Depth and Distance Perception
We perceive the world as three-dimensional. Three-dimensional are those which have height, width, and length. The ability to judge depth and distance is an adaptive skill.
- If two objects are assumed to be the same size, the object producing the large image on the retina is perceived as closer than the one producing a smaller image.
- On the ground, more far objects are usually higher than those nearby. We perceive higher objects as a great distance away.
- Light and Shadow also pay contributions in three dimensions.
- The closer together the two converging lines are, the greater the perceived distance. Parallel lines seem to converge as they extend into the distance.
Form perception is based on perceptual organization and perceptual constancy. Organizational perception involves organizing and interpreting the information we get from our sensory organs and allows people to understand which parts of the visual array are objects and which are not, and how far and bright they are. While perceptual constancy means the perception of objects as constant in size, shape, color, and other properties despite changes in their retinal image. It means the stable patterns of perceiving the world.